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  •   快乐8官方appBeijing Group Tours Seat ——Basedonaquestionnaireon230pharmaceuticalenterprisesByWeiJigang,,sPharmaceuticalIndustryCommonlyacknowledgedintheworldasahi-techindustrywithgreatdevelopmentprospects,thepharmaceuticalindustryischaracteristicoffastgrowth,enormousinvestment,substantivereturns,highrisks,highdegreeofinternationalization,markedeffectsofscaleeconomy,significantspillovereffects,sRepublicofChinain1949,andespeciallyovertherecent20-oddyearsafterthecountryinitiatedthepolicyofreformandopening-up,China,Chinahasbecomeamajorproducerandexporterofrawmedicinesandtheb,Chinaindependentlydevelopedsomeinnovativedrugs1withinternationalinfluences,spharmaceuticalindustryasawhole,however,hasnotmovedtoanot,ithascontributedfewpatentmedicineswithproprietaryintellectualpropertyright(IPR)andnoinnovativedrugwithinternationalinfluencesinthe,amongthe212brandsofchemicalmedicineswithproprietaryIPRwhichpassedexaminationandapprovalbetween2003and2005,,s230pharmaceuticalenterprisesjointlyconductedbytheResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,theEconomicConstructionDepartmentoftheMinistryofFinance,andtheDepartmentofIndustryandTransportStatisticsoftheNationalBureauofStatisticsofChinain2006hasalsorevealedthatonly3percentoftheseenterprisescountedthemselvesashavingcarriedoutorarecarryingoutdevelopmentofmedicinesthatwere‘new,competitioninthepharmaceuticalindustryhasbecomeincreasinglyintenseanddevelopmentofnewmedicineshasbecomeoneofthefocumentofnewmedicinesforthepurittletoxiceffects,minimalsideeffectsandreasonableprice,itwillbeverydifficultforChinaspharmaceuticalindustrytoachiev,theshareoflocalproduce,overhalfoftheChinesepharmaceuticalmarkethasbeentakarmaceuticalindustryfromthestrategicperspectiveofmaintaovationin230pharmaceuticalenterprisesinthecountry,andbytakingintoaccountthemechanismsandsystemscurrentlyservingtheindustrysdevelopment,thispapertriestoanalyzethemainfactorsleadingtotheextremelyinsufficienteffortsoninnovationinChinasph:extremeshortagesoffund,technologyandmanpower,andinappropriateorganizationInordertoinventnewmedicines,apharmaceuticalenterprisehastoputinandrationallyintegratemanykeyelementsincludingfund,technology,manpower,oftheinnovationprocess.(1)spharmaceuticalindustryisnotonlywellbelowthatofdevelopedcountries,,theintensityhasbeendecreasingcontinuouslyinrecentyears,,2006,theRDexpenditureofBritain,andthecorrespondingfiguresinFrance,Japan,,,theRDintensityofthepharmaceutica,market,,therewasnotasinglepharmaceuticalenterpriseintheworld,however,,ChinaspharmaceuticalindustrysufferedacontinuousdeclineinRDintensity,sPharmaceuticalIndustryProjectTeamofDRCTheyear2008hasbeenayearinwhichChineseandforeigneconomability,thepurposefulnessandtheflexibilityinmacroeconomiccontrolandhavetakentimelyandeffectivemeasurestohavesuccessfullyprotectedChinaseconomyfromthenegativeeffectsoriginatingfromsuchsevereanddisadvantageousfactorsasthesnowstorms,theWenchuanEarthquakeinChina,theriseofthecommoditypriceshasbeenfallingdownmon,thecyclicaldeclineoftheeconomicgrowthhasevidentlydraggeddowntheinvestmentandexportgrowthandevo,asUSsub-primemortgagecrisishasevolvedintoanoverallfinancialcrisis,,thebasicprincipleformacroeconomicregulationin2009shouldrestoncarryingoutapositivefinancialpolicyandastablemonetarypolicy,acceleratingthereformandstructuralreadjustmentandexpandingeffectivedemandinChina,controllingeconomicdownturnanditsdurationandguardingagainsttheseriousdeviationoftheeconomicgrowthfromthepotentialgrowthratethrough“retainingandstabilizinganumberofeconomicsectorswhilereformingtheothers”.essureStillCallsforAlertnessThereversevariationtendencyofthehouseholdconsumerpricesandtheex-factor,theriseofhouseholdconsumerpricesisexpectedtodropto6%orsoandtheriseofex-factorypri,theweakeningUSdollarandthedrasticdeclineofthepricesoftheprimarycommoditiesoninternationalmarketswillalsoalleviateChinahecostofChinasproductionfactors,iseoffoodandhousingpriceshasbeenamainreasonforthecontinuousriseofconsumerpricessinceJune2007,withtheaveragecontributi%.Ofthispercentage,the%.%%inAugust,theaveragecontribut%%,%%ascomparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,whichhitanall-timelowoverayearstendency,astheeffectsoftheincentivesupplypolicieshavegraduallyloomedup,thesupplyofmeat,poultry,eggsandvegetablehasbeenameliorated,agrainharvestforthefifthconsecutiveyearisforsure,theinternationalfoodstuffpriceshavebeenfallingdow,astherealestatemarkethasenteredaperiodofreadjustment,thehome-leasingpriceshavereducedandthepricesoffuelandrawmaterialsoninternationalmarketshavedroppedatahigherlevel,therefore,inamonthlydownwardtrend,withthewholeyearsriseuptoabout6%.letheriseofthehouseholdconsumerpriceshasbeenfallingdownmonthbymonth,theriseoftheex-factorypricesoftheindustrialproductshasbeengoingupcontinually,%inAugust,yearonyear,industrialproducts,thepricesofmetalproducts,oilprocessing,chemicalrawmaterialandproducts,coalandcoking,,theincreaseinthepricesofironandsteelproducts,,dustrialproducts,withtheriseofthepricesofthoseproductscontributinga70%sequilibriuminChinascoalsupplyanddemandresultedfromsuchfactorsassnowstorms,restrictedtransportationcapacity,controloverthecapacityandtheadjustmentofoilandelectricitypricesinChinaaswellasbythesh,thefactorsdrivingupex-factorypricesofChina,therecentdemandforironandsteelinChinaandabroadhasobviouslyreduced,resultinginachangeofthemarketsupply-demandpattern,anincreaseofthestockofironorean,thegrowthofChinasdeman,thegrowthofpowerconsumptionfellbacktoalowerlevel,theapparentcoalconsumptionreduced,thecoalstockinmostpower-generatin,theinternationalcrudeoilpriceshavebeendecliningcontinuouslyfromahistoricalhighlevel,t,currentlytheriseoftheex-factorypricesoftheindustrithoughtheworldeconomyhasdeclinedasawholeinashortperiodoftime,theshrinkageoftheaggregatedemandwillbringdownthepricesoftheinternationalstapleproducts,therefore,,fromtheinternationalperspective,thenewroundofglobalindustrializationwaverepresentedbytheBRICs(Brazil,Russia,India,andChina)willlastforalongerperiodoftime,becomingamainstayindemandforstapleproducts,,theoveralloutbreakoftheAmericanfinancialcrisis,coupledwiththeUnitedStatestakingmassivemeasurestosavethemarketwiththegovernmentcredit,theUSdollarwillweakenonceagain,atthesametimepartoftheinternationalhotmoneywillonceagainspeculateintocommoditymarkets,thusmakingseconomy,firstly,theChinesedomesticgrainmarketisrelativelyisolatedfromtheinternationalgrainmarket,thereisabigdifferencebetween,thelaborcosthasrisen,therefore,itispredictedthatthe,itisimperativetoreformthemarketpricesoftheproductionfactors,thepricesoftheproductionfactorswilltendtoriseoveralongperiodoftime,andthereisstillroomforthepricesofoilproducts,,Chinaisconfrontedwithmoreconstraintsinitsdevelopmentandwillsureandneedstowatchoutforit.ByLongGuoqiang,ResearchDepartmentofForeignEconomicRelationsofDRCResearchReportNo5,2009Overthepast30yearssincetheimplementationofthepolicyofreformandopening-up,Chinafirmlyseizedthestrategicopportunityofeconomicglobalizationbyadoptingthemarketfortec,China,havingintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologiesandequipmentanddramaticallyimprovedtechnicalequipmentlevelofmanufacturingindustry,hasgrowntobealow-costma,duetothestrongtrendof"introductionfirst,yetdigestion,absorptionandre-innovationsecond"indomesticenterprises,thetechnologyspillo,domesticenterprisesjustbegintoimplementself-innovationand"goglobal"strategybyutilizingglobalresources,an,Chinamusttakefulladvantageofglobalresourcesandgreatlyenhanceself-innovation,inorderto,thestrategyofopeningtotheoutsideworldintheneweramustudevelopmentinChinaachievedmajoraccomplishmentsduringthepast30years,,rapideconomicgrowthhasbeenmainlydrivenbyfactorinput,seconomicscalecontinuouslyincreases,itseconomicdevelopmentwillfacemoreseverelimitationsonresources,transformintoapatterninwhnstantlyimprovingself-innovationabilityand,,frommonopolyoftheUnitedStatestotherecoveryofJapanandGermanyfromremainsofwar,t,theyallrosethroughs,manydevelopingcountrieshavebecomeemergingeconomies,whicharecontinuouslyshorteningthegapbetweentheirtechnologicallevelwiththeworldadvancedlevelandbecotcutforlate-comerstorapidlycatchupw,openingtoth,Chinaestablishedaconsiderablycompletemodernindustrialsystemby,Chinahasintroducedalotofadvancedtechnologies,equipmentandmanagement,becomingoneofthelow-,manysectorsofmanufacturingindustryon,chainofdivisionoflaborisnotonlyarequirementofimplementingScientificOutlookonDevelopmentandtransformingthepatternofeconomicdevelopment,butalsoaninherentrequirementofadaptingtothationalindustrialtransferforcesdevelopedcountriestorelymoreonintellect,developedcountriesconstantlystrengthentheprotectionofint,enterprisesindevelopedcountries,especiallytransnationalcompanies,investmoreintechnologicalresearchanddevelopmenttomaint,85%ofglobalintellectualpropertylinkinglobaldivisionoflabor,itwillbesubalpropertyrightsis,about1/msof,asChinasindustrialcompetitivenessgreatlyincreasesininternationalmarketandthegapbetweenitstechnicallevelandinternationaladvancedlevelisdramaticallynarrowed,transnationalcompaniesaretargetingChineseenterprisesastheirmaincompetitorsinfuture,whichwillcausebiggerdifficultiesandhighercostsforChinlevelfromNipponSteelCorporation,,theremarksofaseniorexecutivefromaEuropeansteelcompanyreflecttheconcernsoftransnationalcompaniesaboutcontinuoustechnologicaltransferstoChina:"IfwecontinuetransferringnewtechnologiestoChinesesteelenterprises,wewilllosethewholemarket."Therefore,ChinamustgreatlyimplemlutilizationinChinaandmeetingChinasrequirementthrougstsself-innovationaimsatimprovingindustrialtechnicallevel,continuouslycultivatingindependentintellonforvariouscountries,,economicglobalizationprovidesalotofn,cross-borderflowsofglobalRDtalents,cross-bordertransfersofhigh-levelmanufacturingandRDactivitiesfromtransnationalcompanies,advancementofinformationtechnologyanddramaticdecreaseofthecostforinformationcommunication,cross-bordermergersandacquisitionsamongtechnology-basedcompaniesandimprovedprotectionofintellectualpropertyrightsprovidenewopportunitiesfordevelopingcoun,maximumresultscanbeachievedwithlittlee,lossoftalentsandtechnologicalinformationmayintensifyandtheself-,Chinashouldbebravetoandlearoftheimpactofeconomicglobalization,onlyhalfresultscanbeachievedwithtwiceeffort,andthegapbetweeninternationaladvancedlevelanditsownwillbeenlarged.ByLinJiabin,,,urbanpopulationhasgrownfrom170milliontonearly600million,,,thefixedassetsinvestmentinurbanareasduringthe1998~,,however,Chinaalsowentthroughaperiodbeforeitsreformandopeningup,duringwhichurbandevelopm,theoldurbandistrictsinmanycitieshavelotsofr,inbothmagnitudeandintensity,theproblemofcityrenewal,scityrenewal,shistoricalandculturallandscapeAfterWorldWarII,somefamouscitiesintheWesterncountries,suchasParis,London,MunichandNewYork,,damagedorundamagedbythewar,enseofhistoryandthehumantouch,ueanddynamicbuildingsandalsothecityculture,“cityrenewal”,,Chi,,atotalof161millionsquaremetersofhousesweredemolished,%ofthe390millionsquaremetersofmarket-tradedhousescompletedinthatyear(LiZhonghui:Massdemolitionandmassconstruction:painsandregrestofChinesecities,PeoplesDaily,,2005).Inthecourseofmassdemolitionandmassconstruction,manyhistoricalbuildingsweredestroyed,includingthosewhichhadhighhistoricalvaluesandwhoserese,somehistoricalandculturalcitieslosttheirmostrepresent,andeventheBritishnewspaperFinancialTimesalsocarriedacommentaryonJune20,,Chinasolddistrictrenovation,thegovernmentinvestedvirtuallynofundsandmainlyreli,oftheresidents,theoldurbandistrictswithprimelocations,lowpopulationandbuildingdensityandgooddevelopmentprospectoftenbecamethefirsttoberenovated,whilethesectionswithout-of-the-waylocationsandahighdensityofdangeroushousesdrewnobodyamshacklehousesintheoldurbandistricts,themajorstakeholdersincludedtheresidents,thegovernment,thedevelopersandthegroupsandindividualsdevotedtooldtownpreservation(hereinafterthepreservationpeople).Differentstakeholdershaddifferentinterestpursuit,thedevelopershadsharpcontradictionswiththeresidhacklehouserenovationprojectsmusteachstrikeafundbalanceandastherelocationexpensesandcompensationsroseyearafteryear,thedevelopersmustfocusonthehigh-intensityandhigh-densitydevelopm,hotelsandcommercialfacilitiesfurtherconcentratedintheolddistricts,thusoverburdeningthesenofthehistoricallandscapesofthesedistrisecurityofthelow-incomegroupsnorthepreservationofthecommonhum,,manycitiesinChinahavefailedtoproperlyhandletherelationsbetweenthegovernmentandthemarketinthecourseofexecutingtheramshacklehouserenovationprojectsintheoldurban,profitmaximizationbecametheprimarygoalandthepublic-interestgoalssuchasthepreservationofcitylandscapesandculturalandhistoricalsitesandtheimprovementofths,urbandistrictshavebeenregardedasthebasicunitsforrundowndistrictrenovationsanouldmobilizetheinitiativeofthedistrictgovernments,thelowstatusofthesedi,thesedistrictshavetoworkalonetosolvetheissuesofdemolition,intoahighlyintensivedevelopmentactandmadeitdifficulttoaccommodateboththepreservationofhistoricalandculturallandscapesandtherenovationoframshacklehouses....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite. 


      ——EvolutionLogicandChinasCountermeasuresintheCurrentWorldEconomicCycleByXiaBin,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DRCResearchReport001,ear,theWallStreetfinancialstormsweptacrossallfinancialmarketsaroundtheglobeandtri,thegoalsetattheconferen,andkeepstructuralpricerisesfromturningintooverallinflationInJuly2008,thecentralauthoritiesexplicitlypointedoutthattheprimarytaskformacro-regulationwastoensureasteadyandfairthedirectionofitsmacro-regulationsoswiftlyTnDividendsAcceleratedeconomicglobalizationoverthepastfiveyearsshouldbethestartingpointfor,economicglobalizationsurgedacrosstheworld,withtheglobaltradegrowingatanaverageannualrateof4%andtheratioofaverageglobaltradegrowthtoglobaloutputgrowthrisingfrom10%in1870to20%,globaltradegrewatanaverageannualrateof11%,itsratiotoglobaloutputrosefrom22%toabout42%,%for1870~1913,%s,nitedStates,Canada,scountriesfu,theeconomiesofChina,theformerSovietUnionandsomesocialistcountrie,thesecountriesswitchedtomarketeconomy,,China,IndiaandsomeAsiancountriesaloneaccountedforabouthalfof,theseco,,thedevelopedcountriesintheWestactivelypushedforwardglobaliza,thechangesinthesupplychainsandproductionpatternsenhancedlaborpro,~2002period,%%.Butduringthe2003~2007period,%.Whileeconomicgrowthbecamefaster,pricesbecamelower,%irst,thehighworldeconomicgrowthinthisroundofglobalizationwasmainlydrivenbyAsia,withChina,India,otherAsiancountr,theaverageeconomicgrowthwas8%forAsiaandonly3%fortherestoftheworld,,,itseconomicgrowthwasveryfast,but70%,theUnitedStatesfulfilledalargechunkofconsumptioninworlde,thesustainedhighgrowthoftheworldeconomymeantamarkedimprovementinthelivingstandardsofseveralbil,,wentuptwiceasmuchby2007,,whiletheUnitedStatesandotherdevelopedcountriesmaintainedahighgrowthinconsumption,thedeveatremendouspressureonthedemandforstapleproducts,,whicharosefromthedeepeningglobalizationandtherapidimprovementinthelivingstandardsofseveralbillionpeoplearoundtheworld,w,thepriceswouldnotcontinuetoriseiftheglobtheUnitedStatesattheendoflastyearToanswerthisquestion,weneedtoexaminetheotherendofcommodities–,,,thisroundofeconomicg,"fourlittledragons"and"fourlittletigers"andthepresentChina,,thesecountriesresortedtoarelativelyfixedexchange-ratesystemorthedollar-pegsysteminordertosupporttheirexportindustries,promote,thesecountries,drawingonthelessonsoftheAsianfinancialcrisis,,theAsiancountri,theyhadtofindoutle,thegrowthoftheirnationalcurrencies,aftertheirexportexchangeearningsweresettledbythecentralbanks,producedaheavypressureontheinvestmentdemandandonthepricesofgeneralgoodsandassets....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.盛世官网登陆自用办公做设计用几台四核顶配笔记本超低价转 FangJinSincethe1990s,especiallyfromthebeginningofthe21stcentury,theinformationtechnologyrevolutionandthereformscarriedoutinvar,economicglobalizationcontinuestopressforward,bringingupnewfeatures;ontheotherhand,thegradualemergenceofmanydeveloping,takingtheoverallpatternforworldeconomicdevelopmentanditsnewchangesintofullaccountisamustinstudyingthefutureorientationforChina    ,economicglobalizationcontinuestopressaheadandassumessomenewfeaturesinitsdevelopment.  Firstly,,themarketsegmentationcausedbypolitic,theformerSovietUnioncountriesandmajordevelopingcoun,moreandmoreecmentoftradeliberalizationandgavebirthtotheWorldTradeOrganizationcoveringawiderrangeofareassuchasmerchandisetrade,,regionsandmultilateraleconomicrelationshavecreatedunprecedentedfavorab,grershasgivenmoreprominencetotheeffectsofcomparativeadvantageivisionoflabortointra-industrialdivisionoflabor,whileintra-industrialorint,transnationalcorporationshavegrad/,therelationshipofinterestsamongvariouscountriesandamongdifferentci,,anavalancheof380regionaltradeagreementshadbeenreportedtotheWorldTradeOrganization(includingthosereportedtotheformerGATT),,alargenumberofregionaltradeagreementsarecurrentlybeingnegotiatedanditisestimatedthat,allW,themassf,theamountofforeignexchangetransactionsonworldfinancialmarketreached4trillionUSdollarsperdayonaveragein2007,up154%,up160%,thefinancialcapitalflewmainlyacrossthedevelopedcountries;nevertheless,theproportionofcapitalflowingbetweenthedevelop,thevolumeofportfolioinvestmentandinvestmentinfinancial-derivativeshavebeengrowingrapidly,,theofficialreservesofvariouscountrieshavebeenaugmentedfast,andthedistributionofthereservesisquiteuneven,,thecurrentaccountdeficitsoftheUnitedStateswasequivalentto60%oftheworld%oftheworldGDP,andthetotalsurplusofthetopfivesurpluscountrieswasequivalentto53%oftheworld%ertrade,investmentandpersonnelflows,buttransactions,settlementsandreservecurrenciesareonlyconfinedtocurrenciesofaminorityofdevelopedcountries,,byusingtheirfinancialadvantages,haveshiftedtheirdomesticeconomicproblemsontoothercountries,,financialinstitutionsfrom-economyandfinancialmarketindevelopingcountries.    Firstly,itwillbehardfort,thelinksbetweenvariouscountries,underthejurisdictionoftheWorldTradeOrganization,themaximumbenefitfromit;therefore,,theinformationtechnologyrevolution,anotherimportantforceforeconomicglobalization,isstillontherise,andthepotentialforenterprisesandindividualstouseinformationtechnologytochangetransnationalproduction,operation,,thedrivingforceandthetechnologicalfoundationforeconomicglobalizationwillnotchange.  Secondly,theunevendistributiono,,theproportionoftheabsoluteimpoverishedpopulations(whohavelessthan1USdollaradayforliving)ofthedevelopingcountriesintheglobalhasreducedbyalmosthalf,,theproportionoftheabsoluteimpoverishedpopulationinSub-SaharaAfricahasgoneup,,theincomegapbetweenskilledworkersandnon-skilledworkershasbeenconstantlywid,thedifferenceinaveragewagesofAmericanskilledworkersandnon-skilledworkershasenlargedby30%.Theunevendistributionofgainshasworsenedtheconflictsbetweenvariouscountriesandamongdifferentinterestgroupsandislikelytochangetheglobalizationprocessandeventoincurretrogression,whichwouldproduceuncertaintyinfutureworldeconomicgrowth.ByHanJun,QinZhongchunCuiChuanyi,,ionforConstructingaHarmoniousSocietyinChinaRuralsocialsecuritysystemisasystemestablishedataspecificstageofsocialdevelopmentwithr,farmerswhohavelostland,ordinaryfarmers,ruralhouseholdswitheconomichardship,ruralhouseholdsinseverepoverty,andhouseholdsenjoyingthefiveguarantees(childlessandinfirmoldpeoplewhosefood,clothing,medicalcare,housingandburialexpensesaretakencareofandsubsidizedbythegovernment.).Ruralsocialsecuritysystemusuallyincludestheminimumsubsistenceallowancesforpoverty-strickenfarmers,old-agepensionsystemforordinaryfarmers,socialsecurityforfarmerswhohavelostlandandforfarmerworkers,identityandchangesinthesocialandeconomicconditions,themodeandcontentofrural,integratingitorganicallywithurbansocialsecuritysystem,andgraduallyperfectingthetwoandestablishingaunitedsocialsecuritysystemwithbothhavebecometheinevitablecourseforChinaintheprocessofcoordiotionofsocialfairnessOneoftheimportantbedrocksofsocialistharmonioussocietyistheequalityofrightsandopportunities,whichincludeequalopportunitiesforemploymentandeducation,equalbusinessandfinancingopportunities,,Chinasstandardsocialsecuritysystemonlycoverspartofurbanresidentsofgovernmentsectorsofthesociety,,mostruralhouseholdsstillseek“self-security”fromfamily,dustrialsociety,,inviewofthedevelopmenttendency,itisimperativetoprovidealargenumberoffarmerswithequalopportunitiesandrightsthroughasocialsecuritysystem,,,thenumberofelderlyover60hasexceeded10%ofthetotalruralpopulation,,%epeakofaging,theconstructionsofsocialsafetyandlegalsystemAstheindustrializationandurbanizationproceed,Chinahasenteredaphasewhenvarioussocialcontradictionsbecomeyhavenowenteredtheiroldageinsuccession,andtheevermoreprominentphenomenonofmoreoldpeopleandlessyoungpeoplehasalteredthetraditionalmodeloffamily-basedold-agecare,underwhichruralpeopleusu,ifnotproperlyhandled,,forwhomtheincomeislow,,138millionemployeesworkintownshipenterprisesandsmallandmedium-sizedenterprises,whoseemploymentconditionsareunstable,,the,unabletoseekregularemploymentafterlosingtheirland,,everyyearinruralareasthereareabout70millionvictimsofvariousdisastersandover76ionandcontrol,safeguardtherightsandinterestsoffarmersanddisadvantagedgroups,embodyngcoordinateddevelopmentandbridgingthegapbetweenurbanandruralareasTheunevendevelopmentbetweenurbanandruralareashasalwaysbeenanoutstandingcontradictioninChinaydevelopment,whensocialandeconomicdevelopmenthasreachedcertainlevels,wecanexpeditethedevelopmentofthebasicsystemofruralold-agepensionandreducethegapbetweenurbanandruralareasandpromotecoordinateddev,Chinahasalreadyenteredastageinwhichindustriespromotethedevel,easesocialcontradictionsthroughsystemandmechanismconstruction,increasefarmers,whichmeansChinahasprimarilylaidthematerialfoundationforiforadvancingtheinitialperiodafterthefoundingofnewChina,theprimarytaskofthePartyandtheGovernmentwastopressforwardrurallandreformsoastoensurefarmerstohavetheirownlandandtocarryoutasysteminruralareaswithfamilysecurityasthedominantformofsocialsrySessionofthe11thCPCCentralCommittee,thestateadoptedaplannedeconomicadministrationsystem,muchattentionhasbeenattachedtopo,ru,generallyspeaking,acompletesystemframeworkhasnottakenshape;easfollows:...Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.,2008Ruralinfrastructureandpublicservicesystemconstitu,improvingruralinfrastructureandpublicservice,thegovernmenthasincreasedinp,theoutdatedruralinfrastructurehasnotwitnessedanymajorimproveme,thisurban-ruralgapcanbeattributed,toaverylargeextent,,inwhich"agricultureispromotedbyindustryandcountrysideissupportedbycity",ChinahasalreadypossessedthebasicconditionsandcapacitiestoshifttheemphasisofthecoyofpublicproductsinChinasruralareashaslongobservedthebasicprincipleof"self-reliancefirstandgovernmentsupportsecond".Thesupplyofruralpublicproductshasbeenmainlyrelyingonthepeasantsthemselves,,medicalcare,socialsecurity,publicinfrastructureandotherpublicservices,,itfatilthe16thPartyCongresswstructionofanewsocialistcountrysideasamajorhistorictaskanddecided,forthefirsttimeinhistory,"threereductions"(reductionofagriculturaltax,reductionoftaxonspecialagriculturalproductsandreductionofchargesforruraleducation)and"threesubsidies"(subsidiesforgrainproduction,seedsimprovementandthepurchaseofagriculturalmachines),aseri,thesupportofpublicfinancetoruraldevelopmentshiftedfromthepastnarrowscopeofagriculturalproducti,ruraleducation,health,culture,roadconstruction,drinkingwaterforhumansandanimals,anduralinfrastructureandsocialundertakingssincethe16thPartyCongress,ruralinfrastructureconstructi,,th,atotalof870,000kilometersofruralroadswereeitherconstructedorreconstructed,with580,,325,000kilometersofruralroadswereconstructedorreconstructed,458townshipsortownsand17,764administrativevillageswereconnectedwithhighways,and1,708townshipsortownsand43,,thetotalmileageofChina,%%oftheadministrativevillageshadbeenconnectedwithhighways,%%of,Chinas,,,,theconstructionofruralwatercontrolfacilities,featuringthewater-savingtransformationprojectsinthelargeirrigatedareas,thewater-savingirrigationdemonstrationprojectsandthewatercontrolexperimentsinthepastoralareas,,,,eachbeing300,000mu,,,,theareaundersprayirrigation,,andtheareaunderrain-collec%ofthetotallengthofvariouschannelsintheirrigationareas,eachbeingmorethan10,edCurrently,97%ofChinastownshipsandtownscanbeconnectedwiththeInternetand92%,thereareover6,"three-in-one"integratedinformationserviceplatformsthatincorporatetheadvantagesoftelephone,(county,townshipandvillage)informat%oftheadministrativevillagesacrossthecountry,,telephoneservicecovered13,740newadministrativevillages,,atotalof6700centralandgrass-rootsservicestationswereestablishedbyrelyingonthepubliclibrariesatvariouslevelsandtheculturalstationsatthetownship,ndthemoderndistanceeducationprojectforruralprimaryandmiddleschoolshaverespectivelybuilt197,000and181,,anationwidesductionandlife,andhaspreliminarilysolvedtheirdifficultiesinreadingbooksandwatchingmovies,andhasenrichedtheirspare-timeculturallife. 


      ca亚洲城在线网址ByQinZhongchun,ResearchDepartmentofRuralEconomy,theDRCResearchReportNo116,2009Grainreserves,asthekeystrategicmaterialsofChina,haveplayedanimportantroleinsafeguardingthegrainmarketandsocialstability,,especiallywiththeeffortsmadeinrecentyears,anewgrainreservesystemwithChinesecharacteristicsansGrainReserveSystemEstablishedinthe1950ssincethefoundingofthePeoplesRepublicofChina,Chinasgrainreservesystemhasbeenconstantlyadvanced,reformedandimproved,withthereservecategoriesbeingconstantlyincreased,thestructureandscaleofreservesbeinggraduallyrationalizedandthemanagementofreservesbeingconstantlyenhanced,th:ThenationalemergesRepublic,,Chi,thestatesetapartafractionofgrainsfromthefoodreservestockasthegrainreserves,designatedstoragewarehouses,setasidefundreservementsconcerned,suchastheStatePlanningCommission,,accordingtothethenpoliticalandmilitarysituations,Chinabuiltupthe"506"PCCentralCommitteeandtuntingthedifficultiesingrainsupply,guaranteeingpeopleslivingstandardandsupportingChina,becauseofthesinglenatureofthereservesystemsandowingtothefeaturesofthegraindistributionundertheplannedeconomysystemand,asaresultofthereservesinsmallscaleandtheextensivemanagementofthereserveswhichweremainlystoredandheldbylocalgraindepartmentsintrust,overalongperiodoftime(until1990)aftertheestablishmentofthosesystems,Chinasgrainreservesonlyimpl,duringthatperiodoftime,thegrainreservesystemandthegrainmanagementsystemwerecombinedintoasingleunittobeunderthejurisdictionoftheexclusivemainbody——thestategraindepartment,:Thestatebackupreservesystemwassetuptore,Chinasgrainyieldsgrewbyleapsandbounds,graduallyeasingthelong-term,,thecropharvestswereaccomplishedinthreeconsecutiveyearsof1988,1989and1990,makingithardforfarmerstoselltheirfoodstuffs,s,thecentralgovernmentdecidedtosetupthespecialstategrainreservesystemaimedat"purchasingsurplusfoodgrains,stabilizinggrainproduction,alleviatingcropfailureswithbumperharvestsandstabilizingthemarket",whichwasthefirsttimetosetupthebackupreservesystemspecializedinadjustingmark,ChinasetuptheStateGrainReservesBureautobeinchurchasefoodgrainsonitsbehalf,,malpracticesexistedinsuchareservesystemduringthatperiod:thesystemwasnotwellmadeandthemanagementwasnotproperlyconducted;warehouseswerescattered,makingitinconvenientforsupervision;elyandthequalitywasnotguaranteed,thefoodstuffsgotlostorwentbadorwerenotenoughtodistributeorcouldnotbedistributedasneedaroseandthefoodstuffsdidnotsellwell,:ThecentralgrainreservesystemwassetupandwasputundertheverticalmanagementofChinaGrainReservesCorporation,andtheconstruct,theproblemsexistinginthemanagementofthespecialstategrainreservesnotonlyhamperedtheoperationandmanagementofthecentralgrainreserves,butalsostraigh,1998,theCPCCentralCommitteeandtheStateCouncilmadegreatstrategicdecisionstocarryoutasignificantreformoftheestablishedstategrainres,after1998,ts,with1109depotsbeingbuiltandthetotalreservecapacityreachingmorethan100billionjin(twojinmakeonekilo).In2000,theStateCouncilsetupChinaGrainReservesCorporation(Sinograinforshort).Sinograin,onthebasisoftakingoverthelarge-scalegraindepotsinvestedbythecentralgovernmentandpracticingtheframeworkoftheCorporationanditsdirectlysubordinatedepotsbeingasindependentlegalentitiesandthemanagementexercisedrespectivelybytheCorporation,itsbranchesanditsdirectlysubordinatedepots,carriedouttheverticalmanagementofthemanpower,financial,therelevantcentraldepartmentsmadestrictexaminationsandevaluationsofSinograinspersonnel,assetsanddepotstakenoverbyit,properlyhandledSinograinsirregularaccountingtyofFinance,theNationalDevelopmentandReformCommissionandtheStatentralgrainreservesmainlybylocalgraindepartme,ChinapromulgatedRegulationsonAdministrationofCentralGrainReserves,clarifyingtheplans,storage,use,supervision,inspectionandlegalresponsibilitiesofthecentralgrainreservesandbringingtheoperationofthegrainreservesontothelegaltrack,whichplayedanimportantpartinguaranteeingtheeffectiveoperationofthecentralgrainreservemanagementmechanism,ensuringthesuperiorquality,thegenuineamountandthesafestorageofthegrainreserves,bringingtherolesofthecentralgrainreservesinservingthestatemacro-controlintoeffectiveplayandfacilitatingthelocallegislationworkongrainreserves.Hot sale ABS plastic led lantern ——AnoverviewofthedevelopmentofChinasruralareasinthe10yearsafterAsianfinancialcrisisByHanJun,,2007AftertheoutbreakofAsianfinancialcrisis,theCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistPartyofChineas,theenl,withapurposetogetadaptedtothechangesindifferentperiodsofthedevelopmentofagricultureandthenationaleconomy,theChineseGovernmenthasmadetimelyadjustmentstothepolicygoalsrelatedtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,andpromulgatedaseriesofsignificantpoliciesfocusingonincreasingfarmersristicsoftheevolutionofChinaspoliciesonagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthepastdecade,looksintothefu,farmersincome,inordertogetwelladaptedtothedevelopmentchangesatdifferentperiodsofagricultureinChinaAtthetimewhenAsianfinancialcrisisbrokeout,Chinawasseeingasufficientsupplyofagriculturalproducts,,Chinareapedabumpergraincropforfiveconsecutiveyears,lidfoundationformarketstabilityandadvancementofthelivingstandardsofruralandurbanresidentsandboostedi,itwasgettinghardertosellagriculturalproducts,,,thegrowthrateoffarmers,%,%,%,%%in1996,1997,1998,,aconsiderablenumberoffarme,Chinaputforwardsomemeasuresfeaturing"highyield,superiorqualityandhighefficiencyforagriculture",andstillconsideredititsfirstandforemos,Chinahadlargelyalleviatedtheshortsupplyofagriculturalproducts;meanwhile,theslowgrowthoffarmersin,itappearednecessarytoadjustthecountrysagriculturalpolicyinpur,greatchangeshadtakenplaceinthosemajorfactorsinfluencingthegrowthoffarmers,thestategovernmentelevatedthepurchasingpricedramatically(toanextentupto102%,intotal);atthattime,thepricesofgrainandmostotheragriculturalproductsalreasincomebyenhancingtheproductionoutputofagriculturalproductsandelevatingthepurchasingpricesofagriculturalproductshadbecomeinfeasibleanditwasnecessarytoseeksomenewmethodstoincreasethefarmers,theThirdPlenarySessionofthe15thCPCCentralCommitteepassedthe"DecisiononMajorIssuesRegardingAgricultureandRuralAreas",whichmadeanimportantjudgmentonthedevelopmentstagesofChinaturalproducts;nowadays,theoverallsupplyofgrainandothermajoragriculturalproductshasbeenabletomeetthedemandatlarge,rimarygoalofagriculturaldevelopmentandruraleconomydevelopmentintheneweratoincreasethefarmersincome,whichcanberegardedasanimportantadjustmenttoChinatstagesofnationaleconomy,Chinaclearlyputforwardaguidingprincipleof"lettingindustrynurtureagriculture,andlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment",andmadeitastrategictaskinChinasdriveofbuildingnewruralareaswithsocialistfeaturesinthecourseofmodernizationAttheturnofthenewcentury,Chinahasfurtherimplementedthepolicymeasuresrelatedtofarmers,uiretattheruralworkconferenceheldin2003thatthePartysworkofprimeimportanceshouldbefocusedonagriculture,ruralareasandfarmers,therebygivingmuchprominencetotheimportanceoftheissuesrelatedtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinChina,inascientificway,themainproblemsarisinginthedevelopmentofChinasnationaleconomy,the4thPlenarySessionofthe16thCPCCentralCommitteefurtherputforwardanimportantjudgmentknownas"twotendencies".Later,thePartymadeanotherjudgmentthat"Chinahasalreadyenteredanewdevelopmentstagewiththefeatureoflettingindustrynurtureagricultureandlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment"andmadeitclearthatthiswastheprincipletofollowedforaddressingtheissuesrelatedtoagriculture,gictas,theconstructionofnewruralareasinthenewhistoricalperiodechoestheobjectiverequirementsuponall-sideddevelopmentofruralareasundernewcircumstances,andconsistswiththeguidingthoughtwhichwasputforwardbythe16thCPCNationalCongresswithregardtosolvingthedualeconomicstructurecontradictionsbetweenruralandurbanareasandemphasustrynurtureagricultureandlettingurbanareashelpruralareasinpursuitofdevelopment,andsignificantstrategicmeasureslaiddownbythecentralgovernmentfromtheperspectiveoftheviewofscientificdevelopmentforbuildingasocialistharmonioussocietyandguidingtheworkwithregardtoagriculture,ruralareasandfarmersinthenewhistoricalperiod....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ByLuWei,,ationSystemKnowledgeinnovationreferstotheprocessofacquiringnewknowledgeofnaturalscienceandtechnologythroughscientificresearch(includingbasicresearchandappliedresearch).Theobjectiveofknowledgeinnovationistopursuenewdiscoveries,toprobeintonewrules,toestablishnewtheories,andoriginationsrelatedtoproducing,diffusingandtransferresearch-orienteduniversities,andotherhighereducationinstitutions,scientificresearchinstitutionsrunbyenterprisesandgovernmentagencies,;andtheknowledgeinnovati,especiallybasicresearch,hasalongcycle,andgreatuncertaintiesandrisks;ontheotherhand,itispublic-friendly,,,thegovernmentsofthosecountrieswithmaj:oneisinterest-orientedfreeexploringresearch,whichneednothavemarketorcommercialimpactsimmediately,yetmaybringaboutabreakthroughindiscoveryandformawholenewfield;,thecombinationofbasic,theinnovationmodelhaschanged,thedifferencebetweenbasicresearchandappliedresearchhasbecomesmaller,andthecontributiononthehi-techfieldhavecomeaboutthankstoth,importantinformationandcommunicationtechnologies,suchasglobe-widebroadbandinternet,internetbrowser,compatibletimesharingsystemofcomputer,intranet,andcomputerworkstation,wereallbroughtalongbysomeunexpecteddisc,butalsoisgoodforimprovingtheabilityofintegratedinnovation,andtheabilityoffurthe,thedevelopmentoftheMP3technologyshowsthat,lithiumbatteries,andLCDallcamefromachievementsandtechnologicalbreakthroughsinbasicresearchprojectsfundedbytheDefenseDepartment,theEnergyDepartment,theNationalScienceFoundation,NationalInstitutionsofHealthandtheNationalInstitute,itcanbeseenthatanotherimportanteffectofbasicresearchistoestablishaplatformtoassembleresearchpersonnelofhigherlevels,andtomaintainalargegroupo,thebasicresearchconductedbyAmericanuniversitiesattractedandassembledthebestresearchpersonnelfromallovertheworld,fosteringalargenumberofpeopleholdingbachelorsdegrees,mastersdegreesanddoctorsdegrees,andpost-doctoralresearchstaff,putinChinaTheChinesegovernmenthasalwaysattachedimportancetobasicresearch,,theCentralCommitteeoftheCPCissuedDecisiononEducationSystemReform,whichentrustedhigherlearninginstitutionswith"thetaskoftraininghigh-levelprofessionalsanddevelopingscientificandtechnologicalculture",puttingforwardthat"higherlearninginstitutionsandtheChineseAcademyofSciencesshoulderimportantresponsibilitiesconcerningbasicresearchandappliedresearch",andthat"basicresearchandappliedresearchshouldbecombinedwithpersonneltraining".Atpresent,38universitiesoutofover1,000havebeenapprovedbythestateasresearch-orienteduniversities;andinfact,someuniversitiesthathavenotgotthe,theLeadingGroupforStateScienceandEducationDevelopmentchosetheChineseAcademyofSciences(CAS)tolaunchapilotprojectforbuildingthenationalinnovationsystem,owledgeinnovationcenterofnaturalscienceandhightechnology,which,withpowerfulandsustainableinnovationability,targetingnationalstrategicgoalsandinternationalscienceandtechnologyfrontier;tobuildtheCASintoascientificresearchbaseofinternationalhighlevel,abaseoftraininghigh-leveltalentedpersonnelandpromotingthedevelopmentofChinashi-techindustries;andtobuilditintoanationalbasewiththeknowledgeofscienceandtechnology,anationalbasewithadvancedscientificoutlookandanationalbaseequippedwithtalentsofscienceandtechnology,,inadditiontotheexistingNaturalScienceFoundation,otherprograms,suchastheDevelopmentPlanoftheStateKeyFundamentalResearch(973Program)andtheSpecialProjectinEarlyStageonKeyProgramsofFundamentalResearch,tatekeylaboratories,theconstructionofkeydisciplinaryareasinuniversities,andtheconstructionofthebasicc(1)Theoverallscientificresearchexpenditurehasbeenconsiderablyincreasing,withitsproportiontotheRDinputdecreasing,,theoverallexpenditureonscientificresearchinChinanearlytripled,mentinsociety,theproportionofscientificresearchexpendituretoRDexpendituredroppeddistinctly,from33%atthebeginningoftheNinthFive-YearPlanto26%,theproportionoftheappliedresearchexpendituretothetotalRDexpenditureinChinafirstdroppedandthenrose,yetne,%peryearonaverage,alittlebithigherthanthatoftheRDexpenditure,%%%.(Table1)Table1ChangeofChinasRDExpenditureStructureLiuShijinI."TwoReplacements"playgreaterrolesThisyearandespeciallysincethesecondquarter,,morepositivefact,,thegovernehasbeenhigh,theratefromregionalonomicrebound,e,thecountryseconomicgrowthinthisroundofrestructuringcouldhavefallentoabout1%.Two,socialinvestmentshavebeguntofollowup,,realestateandautomaking,,%.Inparticular,therealestateindustryhasexped%%,%%,%%,,,thetotalretailofconsumergoodswentupbyover16%,thedeclineofexportinkindhasbecomelessdramaticifthepricefactorisdeducted,,Chinasexpo,China,China,aare,whethertheseforcesaresustainable,,weshouldunderstandthe"logic"ofthisroundofeconomicreboundandusethislogictoexplai,themainfactorsinfluencingtherecenteconomicreboundcanbesummarizedas"tworeplacements".The"firstreplacement"meansthatwhenashort-termhugedemandgapappearedandtheeconomysliddownrapidlyduetotheshockoftheinternationalfinancialcrisisandtheimpactofthedomesticeconomiccyclicdownturn,astimuluspackagewasintroducedmainlytoincreasegovernmentinvestmentstonarro"secondreplacement"meansthatwhentheeconomybegantoreboundduetotheimplementationofthestimuluspackagebutmassgovernmentinvestmentscannotlastlongandwillproduceadegressiveeffect,theensuingdemandgapshouldbecoveredbymarket-driveninvestmentandconsumptionandthelatterwillgcondbottom,,itispossiblethatChinasgrowthratewillreach8%inablefactorsAtthesametime,,thefinancialsystembeginstostabilizeaftertheattackofthecrisis,,,EuropeandJapancanpostpositivegrowthsattheendofthisyearorsometimenextyearasmostpeopleexpect,,,theconsuructuralconstraintstothespaceofChina,thereb,becausethesocialinvestmentintherealeconomyhasjustbeguntopickupandtheconfidenceisstillunstable,becausethehikingassetpricesontherealestateandstockmarketshaveattractedsomefundsandinturnaffectthereboundoftherealeconomyandthisshort-termpricehikingalsocontainstheriskofsharpriseandfall,becausetheconsumptiongrowthhasbeenbolsteredbypolicysupportandasthetimegoeson,d,becausetherecoveryoftheexport-orientedcoastalregionsandenterprisesinthesoutheastregionhasbeenslowandonlythereboundofinfrastructureconstructionandrelatedindustrieshasbeenstrong,becausethelargeenterprisesandprojectsdirectlyfundedorsupportedbythegovernmenthavesufficientfunds,butthevastnumberstscannotlastlongandthespacewillgraduallybecomesmallerasthetimegoesby,andmeanthatthemassreleaseofcreditfundssincetheendoflastyearisanexpedientmeasuretocopewithaspecialcaseandcannotlastlong....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,pleaseleaveamessageonthewebsite.ZhangChenghui,ChenDaofu,(1)OpeningpolicyonmarketaccesstoforeigninstitutionsWhenjoiningtheWorldTradeOrganization(WTO),Chinamadecommitmentsinfiveareasincludingformofincorporation,geographicscope,businessscope,nstitutionsinChinaintheformofjoint-venturecompaniesbutwouldnotbeallowedtohavemorethan50%equityholding;foreignnon-lifeinsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishbranches,joint-venturecompaniesandwholly-ownedsubsidiarycompanies.—Thegeographicrestriction,whichhadlimitedforeigninsurancecompaniestoShanghai,Guangzhou,Dalian,ShenzhenandFushanbeforeChinasWTOaccession,,foreigninsurancecompanieswouldbeallowedtoestablishsubsidiariesinanypartofChina.—Withregardtobusinessscope,foreignlifeinsurancecompanies,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatinglifeinsurancebusinessforforeignersandforChinesewhopersonallypaidpremiums,wouldbeallowedtoprovidepersonallifeinsuranceservice,healthinsurance,groupinsuranceandpension/,whichhadbeenlimitedtooperatingpropertyinsurancebusinessforoverseasenterprisesandoperatingpropertyinsuranceandrelatedliabilityinsurance,creditinsurance,masterpolicyandmajorcommercialinsuranceforforeign-investedenterprisesinChina,wouldbeallowedtooperateallinsurancebusinessesexceptmandatoryinsurancelines(third-partyliabilityinsuranceformotorvehiclesandliabilityinsuranceforthedriversandcarriersofcommercialtransportvehicles).—Foreignreinsurancecompanieswouldbesubjecttoneithertherestrictionontheformofincorporationnortherestrictionongeographiclocationandtherestrictiononthenumberofbusinesslicenses.—Withregardtotheconditionsofincorporation,foreigninsuranceinstitu$200millionintotalassets,higherthanthe10-million-yuanpaid-upcapitalrequiredforaChinesecompany.—Withregardtothequalificationofforeignshareholders,theywouldhavetomeettherequirementsoftotalassetsandbusinesshistory(ashareholdermusthaveoperatedinsurancebusinessformorethan30years,itstotalassetsattheendoftheyearbeforeincorporationapplicationshouldnotbelessthanUS$5billion,andtheapplicanthashadarepresentativeofficeinChinaformorethantwoyears).TheinsuranceindustryhasthesamerequirementforforeigncapitalparticipationinChineseinsurancecompaniesasthebankingindustrydoes,namelytheinvestmentinaChinesefinancialinstitutionbyasingleoverseasfinancialinstitutionshouldnotexceed20%andthetotalshareholdingbyforeigncapitalshouldnotexceed25%.—The20%mandatorycedingtoaChinesereinsurancecompanyatthetimewhenChinajoinedtheWTOwouldbelifted.(2)OpeningpolicyonthecontrolofoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompaniesWithregardtothecontrolovertheoperationalactivitiesofinsurancecompanies,foreigncompaniesarecurre:—,thebasictermsandpremiumratesofmajorcommercialieterms,ndapprovingthetermsandpremiumratesofmandatoryinsurance,guaranteedinsurancewithaperiodofmorethanoneyear,,%orlower.—,treasurybondsandfinancialbonds,thecommissionalsoallowedinsurancefundstoinvestincorporatebonds,securitiesinvestmentfundsanddirectlyinvestinstockmarkets,,itraisedtheratioofinvestinginsuranceassetsinstockmarketsfrom5%to10%ofthetotalassets,allowedinsurancecompaniestouse15%oftheirtotalassetsforoverseasinvestment,andexpandedthescopeofoverseasinvestmentfromthefixed-earningcategorytoshares,,thecommissionestablishedarelativelyhighthresholdforhigh-riskinvestmentandencouragedsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompaniestocarryoutentrustedinvestmentthrought,mostsmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanieshavenoqualificationfordirectstockinvestmentexceptnineChinese-investedinsuranceassetsmanagementcompaniesandthespecially-approvedAssetManagementCenterofChinaRegionofAmericanInternationalAssuranceCo.,,aninsurancecompanymusthaveatleast10billionyuanintotalassetsandthereforesmall-andmedium-sizedinsurancecompanies,bothChineseandforeign,aredifficulttoacquirethisqualification.—,ChinaInsuranceRegulatoryCommissionpromulgatedtheInterimRegulationsontheAdministrationoftheMinimumSolvencyandRegulatoryIndicatorsofInsuranceCompanies,thusbeginninganexperimentonsolvencyregulation,whichusedtherelativelysimple,EU-typefixedratiomodel,(1)ForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustryForeigncapitalparticipationinChinasinsuranceindustrywasmainlydoneinthreeforms:branchcompanies,Sino-foreignjoint-venturecompaniesandstrategicinvestors,someforeigncapitalenjoyedthedevelopmentfruitofChinasinsuranceindus,atotalof49foreigninsurancecompaniesfrom15countriesandregionsacrosstheworldhadestablishedatotalof161businessinstitutionsinChina(includingthoseunderpreparation).Table1showsthenumbersofChineseandforeigninsurancecompaniesformallyoperatinginChinasinsurancemarketduringthe2004~%ginChinasInsuranceMarket 


      Third,theChineseeconomybeganagradualintegrationwiththeworldeconomyafterChineseChairmanMaoZedongandAmericanPresidentRichardNixonshookpoliti,theformerEastEuropeanandSovietcountriesandsomecountriesinLatinAmerica,thewaveofeconomicinteg,andmadeitpossibleforglobaleconomicdevelopmenttofullyenjoythe"dividendofglobalization"andthe"dividendofpopulation".Asaresult,,thefloatingexchangeratesystemandtheopportunityarisingfromtheeconomicgrowthcycleinthenewroundofglobalization,donceagainfloodedtheworldwi,,rosefromUS$$,$100trillionin2002toUS$516trillionin2007,agrowthofmorethanfivefolds.快乐8官方appFengFei,WeiJigang,WangXiaomingZhaoYuchuan,,2007InordertoascertainthestateofthetechnologicalinnovationsofChinaslargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterprises,theResearchDepartmentofIndustrialEconomyoftheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncil,theDepartmentofEconomicConstructionoftheMinistryofFinanceandtheDepartmentofIndustryandTransportoftheNationalBureauofStatisticsconductedajointquestionnairesurveyover2,655enterprisesinsixmajorindustriesincludingpharmacy,generalequipment,specialequipment,transportequipment,electricmachineryandmaterials,andcommunicationsequipment,ogicalinnovationsofChinaedwiththatoftenyearsagoOfthe2,655enterprisessurveyed,%,theinnovationsinthesectorsofpharmacyandgeneralequipmenthavebeenmostactive,%%(Table1).Comparedwiththesurveyconductedin1994bytheDevelopmentResearchCenteroftheStateCouncilandtheNationalBureauofStatisticsinthetwoprovincesofFujianandGansuandwiththesurveyconductedin1996bytheMinistryofScienceandTechnologyandtheNationalBureauofStatisticsoverthetechnologicalinnovationofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterprisesinthesixprovincesandmunicipalitiesofBeijing,Shanghai,Jiangsu,Guangdong,LiaoningandHarbin,thecurrentsurveyindicatesthatthetechnologicalinnovationsoftheseenterprisesarebasicallyasactive(theratiooftheenterprisesconductingtechnologicalinnovations)astheywere(Table2).Theratiois5percentagepointshigheronaverageinthesectorsofpharmacy,generalequipment,andelectricmachineryandmaterials,and1~5percentagepointslowerinthesectorsofspecialequipment,transportequipment,andcommunicationsequipment,ovationsofChinasindustrialenterprisesindicatesthatabout80%ofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenterpriseshaveconductedtechnologicalinnovationsan,italsorevealsthattheratiooftheenterprisesconductingtechnologicalinnovationshasbeenbasicallyunchangedandh%ofthelargeandmedium-sizedindustrialenters(%)唐山首届冰雪运动会开幕 ByLongGuoqiang,Re,2008Chinasprocessingtrade,whichwasinitiatedin1979,nowaccountsforhalfofthecountryngandupgradingofprocessingtrade,,itisofmajorpracticalsignificancetosummarizethehistoricalexperienceindevelopingprocessingtradeandtoconsiderthedirectionofandpolicyonthefuturerestructuringandupgradingofprocessingtradeatatisOpening-upStrategyAfterChinabeganreformandopeningup,itadjusteditseconomicdevelopmentstrategy,switchingfromthe"importsubstitution"strategyundertheplannedeconomytothestrategyof"combiningimportsubstitutionwithexportorientation".Inotherwords,thecapitalandtechnology-intensivesectorswouldcontinuetopursuetheimportsubstitutionstrategy,whiexchangesfortheimportsubstitutionsectorstoimporttechnologies,,thecoregoalofChina"earningforeignexchangesthroughexport",China,thegovernmentadopteddiversemeasurestoencourageexport-orientedprojects,suchasestablishingspecialeconomiczones,improvinginfrastructure,offeringpreferentialta,itsetperformancerequirementsfortheforeign-investedprojects,mainlyconcerninglocalcontents,,itcuttheincometaxbyhalffortheexport-orientedenterprises(whoseexportexceeded70%ofitsoutputvalue).OneoensiveindustriesinJapanandotherEastAsianemergenteconomieswerelooki"massimportsandmassexports".TheymustimporttheirrawmaterialsandsparepainvestedprojectsbecameakeyfactorforwhetherChinacouldseizetheoppor,Chinasimportsubstitutionsectorsst,hightariffsandothertradebarriersobstrueensurethelow-costoperationsinChinaoftheexport-orientedforeign-investedprojectsTheChinesegovernmentintroducedapolicyonprocessingtrade,whichmeanttherawmaterialsandsparepartsimportedbyenterprisesforexport-orientedprocessingwereexemptfromtheimportdutiesandimporttaxes(theyweremainlytheproducttaxbefore1994andthevalue-addedtaxandconsumptiontaxlateron).ThispolicyeliminatedtheobstructionofChinashightariesticindustries,thedepartmentsinchargeofcustoms,inspectionandquarantinealsoconstantlyimprovedtheirregulations,greatlyfaci,,Chinahasbeenthelargestforeigninvestmentattractoramongthedevelopingcountriesintheworld,withit,,71%,Chinaimposedvar,mostoftheforeigninvestmentsinChina%,ChinacouldnothavebeensosuccesssprocessingtradehasplayedtangiblerolesindevelopingChina,theindustrializationandeconomicdevelopmentofdevelopingcountriesisrestrictedbylowexportcompetitiveness,whichresultedfromlowcomp,Chinahasisesintechnology,management,equipment,marketingchannelsandbrandswiththecountrysadvantagesinlabor,landcostandinfrastructure,ChinaturneditselfrsexportandbecomethemostimportantformofChinasForeignTrade(2007)ProjectTeamofDRCTheyear2008hasbeenayearinwhichChineseandforeigneconomability,thepurposefulnessandtheflexibilityinmacroeconomiccontrolandhavetakentimelyandeffectivemeasurestohavesuccessfullyprotectedChinaseconomyfromthenegativeeffectsoriginatingfromsuchsevereanddisadvantageousfactorsasthesnowstorms,theWenchuanEarthquakeinChina,theriseofthecommoditypriceshasbeenfallingdownmon,thecyclicaldeclineoftheeconomicgrowthhasevidentlydraggeddowntheinvestmentandexportgrowthandevo,asUSsub-primemortgagecrisishasevolvedintoanoverallfinancialcrisis,,thebasicprincipleformacroeconomicregulationin2009shouldrestoncarryingoutapositivefinancialpolicyandastablemonetarypolicy,acceleratingthereformandstructuralreadjustmentandexpandingeffectivedemandinChina,controllingeconomicdownturnanditsdurationandguardingagainsttheseriousdeviationoftheeconomicgrowthfromthepotentialgrowthratethrough“retainingandstabilizinganumberofeconomicsectorswhilereformingtheothers”.essureStillCallsforAlertnessThereversevariationtendencyofthehouseholdconsumerpricesandtheex-factor,theriseofhouseholdconsumerpricesisexpectedtodropto6%orsoandtheriseofex-factorypri,theweakeningUSdollarandthedrasticdeclineofthepricesoftheprimarycommoditiesoninternationalmarketswillalsoalleviateChinahecostofChinasproductionfactors,iseoffoodandhousingpriceshasbeenamainreasonforthecontinuousriseofconsumerpricessinceJune2007,withtheaveragecontributi%.Ofthispercentage,the%.%%inAugust,theaveragecontribut%%,%%ascomparedtothesameperiodofthepreviousyear,whichhitanall-timelowoverayearstendency,astheeffectsoftheincentivesupplypolicieshavegraduallyloomedup,thesupplyofmeat,poultry,eggsandvegetablehasbeenameliorated,agrainharvestforthefifthconsecutiveyearisforsure,theinternationalfoodstuffpriceshavebeenfallingdow,astherealestatemarkethasenteredaperiodofreadjustment,thehome-leasingpriceshavereducedandthepricesoffuelandrawmaterialsoninternationalmarketshavedroppedatahigherlevel,therefore,inamonthlydownwardtrend,withthewholeyearsriseuptoabout6%.letheriseofthehouseholdconsumerpriceshasbeenfallingdownmonthbymonth,theriseoftheex-factorypricesoftheindustrialproductshasbeengoingupcontinually,%inAugust,yearonyear,industrialproducts,thepricesofmetalproducts,oilprocessing,chemicalrawmaterialandproducts,coalandcoking,,theincreaseinthepricesofironandsteelproducts,,dustrialproducts,withtheriseofthepricesofthoseproductscontributinga70%sequilibriuminChinascoalsupplyanddemandresultedfromsuchfactorsassnowstorms,restrictedtransportationcapacity,controloverthecapacityandtheadjustmentofoilandelectricitypricesinChinaaswellasbythesh,thefactorsdrivingupex-factorypricesofChina,therecentdemandforironandsteelinChinaandabroadhasobviouslyreduced,resultinginachangeofthemarketsupply-demandpattern,anincreaseofthestockofironorean,thegrowthofChinasdeman,thegrowthofpowerconsumptionfellbacktoalowerlevel,theapparentcoalconsumptionreduced,thecoalstockinmostpower-generatin,theinternationalcrudeoilpriceshavebeendecliningcontinuouslyfromahistoricalhighlevel,t,currentlytheriseoftheex-factorypricesoftheindustrithoughtheworldeconomyhasdeclinedasawholeinashortperiodoftime,theshrinkageoftheaggregatedemandwillbringdownthepricesoftheinternationalstapleproducts,therefore,,fromtheinternationalperspective,thenewroundofglobalindustrializationwaverepresentedbytheBRICs(Brazil,Russia,India,andChina)willlastforalongerperiodoftime,becomingamainstayindemandforstapleproducts,,theoveralloutbreakoftheAmericanfinancialcrisis,coupledwiththeUnitedStatestakingmassivemeasurestosavethemarketwiththegovernmentcredit,theUSdollarwillweakenonceagain,atthesametimepartoftheinternationalhotmoneywillonceagainspeculateintocommoditymarkets,thusmakingseconomy,firstly,theChinesedomesticgrainmarketisrelativelyisolatedfromtheinternationalgrainmarket,thereisabigdifferencebetween,thelaborcosthasrisen,therefore,itispredictedthatthe,itisimperativetoreformthemarketpricesoftheproductionfactors,thepricesoftheproductionfactorswilltendtoriseoveralongperiodoftime,andthereisstillroomforthepricesofoilproducts,,Chinaisconfrontedwithmoreconstraintsinitsdevelopmentandwillsureandneedstowatchoutforit. 


      ByZhangChenghui,ResearchInstituteofFinance,DevelopmentResearchCenter(DRC)ResearchReportNo030,hmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemhasbeenstudiedforoveradecade,buttherehasbeennosubsTheargumentshavefocusedonthefollowingissues.(1)Iscatastropheinsuranceapolicy-orientedorcommercialsystemHowdowedefinethegovernmentfunctionsinacatastropheinsurancesystemDoesthegovernmentthatestablishesacatastropheinsurancesystemhavetocontributefundsandifsoinwhatwaytomakecontributionsAretheinsurancecompaniesengagedincatastropheinsuranceandthegeneralpublicpurchasingcatastropheinsuranceentitledtopo,ranceandthatexcessdependenceongovernmentsupportmeansthisinsuranceisequivalenttoadirectfiscaldisasterreliefandthesystemdesignwillbecomemeaningless.(2)HowdothegovernmentdepartmentscoordinatewitheachotherWhichgovernmentdepartmentshouldexerciseleadershipoverestablishingcatastropheinsuran,theinsuranceregulatorydepartment,thecivilaffairsdepartment,theprofessionalmanagementdepartments(suchasthoseinchargeofearthquakeadministration,meteorologicaladministration,oceanicadministrationandtheMinistryofWaterResources),theNationalDisasterReductionCommission,disciplinesanddepartments,itrequiresnotonlyclearguidelinesandreliabledesigns,,itwilllacktherequiredauthorityandabilitytocoordinate;butifanadministrativeinstitutionoftheStateCouncildoesthejob,snationalconditionsManyofthepastresearchesaredevotedtothei,,designedforaspecificcatastropheorfordiversecatastrophesShoulditcoverthewholecountryorbeginwithjustoneprovinceHowtoensurethesystemtobebothscientificandoperableWhichoperationalmodelandriskdiversificationmodeshacatastrophefundorthemodelofacatastrophereinsurancecompanyandshoulditendowthereycountriesindicatethatthecoretasksofaca,andtheiroperationshavematuremodels,includingthenonprofitinstitutionalgovernancestructure,,,manyofthemhavebecomeadministrativeonesandhaveastrongimpulseforself-expansio,,whattypeofinstitutionsshouldexerciseleadershipoverthecatastropheinsurancesystemWhiledirectgovernmentmanagementisapparentlyimproper,for-profitcoanagementinstitutionisestablishedtodothejob,howcanweeffectivelycontainitsimpulseforscaleexpansionandrationallycontrolitsoperatingcostsoastomakethecatastropheinsurdingtoChinasnationalconditionsComparedwithothercountries,Chinahassomeuniquecharacteristics,,Chinaisavastcountry,,Sichuan,Qinghai,Tibetandotherplacesinthewestregiona,rainstorms,mudflowsandothernaturaldisastersthathitt,notonlythegeneralpublichasahighacceptanceofinsuranceproducts,butalsohasagreatercapacitytoadoptadvanceddisasterprevent,asthedevelopedregionshaveahighpopulationdensityandahighassetsvalue,,wecannotsimplyc,wecannotintroduceuniformfeerate,weshoulddesignascientificandrationalcatastropheinsurance,theinsuranceindustryasawholeisunderdeveloiseforcatastropheriskmanagementmakesitimpossibletomobilizethe,thepublicpreparednessfornaturaldisastersisverylow,theinfrastructurefordisasterpreventionandlossreductionisunavailable,andsomemeasuresfo,Chinafindsitdifficulttorelyoncommercial,whichhasauthorityandcoordinatingability,shouldexerciseleadershipovertheestablishmentofacatastropheinsurancesystemandshoulde,,skdiversification,,itisnecessarytoadoptacompulsoryorsemi-compulsorymarketingapproach.NETGATE Spy Emergency 2019下载 LiuShijin,YuBin,ZhangLiqun,YangJianlong,LiJianwei,ChenChangshengFangJinThereweresignstharnmentanditsgradualeffect,theen,weshouldattachgreatimportanttoissuessuchassharpeningemploymentcontradictionsrelatedtoeconomicoperation,dramaticdeclineofenterprisesperformance,inflationarypressurerelatedtotheswiftgrowthofcreditf,macroeconomicpoliciesshouldfocusonpromotingthereboundofmarket-drivendomesticdemand,whilemaintainingthescopeandeffectivenessofgovernmentinvestments,avoidingasecondrincethesecondhalfof2008,%%,whichwasnotonlyduetotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandaconspicuousslowergrowthofworldeconomy,butalsorelatedtothefactthatdomesticleadingsectors,suchasrealestateandautoindustries,entereda,thedevelopmentpatternonwhicheconomicgrowthhasbeenrelyingforalongperiodoftimewasbolsteredbylowpriceandhighinvestmentofelements,suchaslaborforce,landandresources,soitbecomesdifficulttokeepitsustainedwhensignificantchangestakeplaceininternationalanddomesticsituation,,thegro,thechangeinmarketexpectationsandreflectionofenterprises,theover-pessimisticexpectationsweregraduallymultiplied,andthemark,heavyindustrywhichholdsaconsiderablysignificant,lotsofintermediateproductsandlargeinvestmentdemand,oncetheultimatedemandshrinks,itseffectwillspreadalongtheindustrialc,withahighforeigntradedependenceratio,pricesofcommoditiesagainstthebackgroundoffinancialspeculationininternationalmarketsdramaticallydeclinedandimposedsevereimpactsondomesticpricesystem,whichgeneratedthephenomenonof"over-adjustment",differentfrompreviousones,wasbasedontheconditionsofChina,enterp,lackingofcareformarketchanges,imulusmeasuresaccordingtothechangesininternationalanddomesticeconomicsituation,includingdramaticallyincreasingfinancialinputandimplementingstructuraltaxreduction,establishingamassiveplanforindustryadjustmentandreinvigoration,providingvigoroussupporttoscien,,,i,somekeyindicators,s,,%.Fourth,thedeclineofoutputandsalesvolumeofkeyproducts,suchaspowergeneration,rawcoal,cement,steel,,lastQ4andQ1in2009,thesituationofmajoreconomiessuchastheUnitedStates,,domesticinvestmentandconsumptiondemandsaretobefurtherlaunched,andthedownwardpre,%,th%yearonyear,%,theresultofaquestionnaireconductedbyChineseEntrepreneurSurveySystemonover1,000entrepreneursshowedthatover50%ofentrep,someeconomicindicatorsarereturningtonormalintheshortrun,overalleconomicoperationispreliminarilystabilizing,eryoftheOverallEconomyThefactorsinfluencingeconomicgrowthforthewholeyearcanbeobservedfromthreeaspectsincludingforeigndemand,tent,,therecoveryofmarket-d,butthepossibilityoffurtherslideisnotexcludedForeigndemanddramaticallydeclinedowingtotheimpactofinternationalfinancialcrisisandeconomicrecession,anditisinevitableforChina,foreignimportersdramaticallycompressedstockinordertolowermarketrisksandreducetied-upfunds,,theexchangerateofsomecountriesdramaticallydepreciated,whichdamagedthecompetitivenessofChinasexportreportednegativegrowthonayear-on-yearbasisinlastNovember,,processingtrade-orientedITproductsbecamethemainfactorthatdraggedexportslide,whilethedeclineofexportvolumeoflightindustryandtextileproducts,suchasgarments,shoes,,,thankstotheincreasedexportrebateratesforlabor-intensiveproducts,thereisasignificantreboundinexports,,,exportsinprocessingtradedroppedlessthanthatinJan,,Americancommoditiesandothershopsfordailynecessities,exclusiveboutiquesforclothing,furniturestoresandnon-fuelcommoditiesofWal-Mart%,%,%%,asdevelopedcountrieshavetakeneconomicstimulusplansinsuccession,ifprivateconsumptionceasestoslip,inventoryadjustmentsofoverseasretailerswillbecompletedinthesecondquarter,,whileexportgrowthdramaticallysloweddowninbothJanuaryandFebruary,%yearonyear....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:LiuShijin,JinRenqing,:ofthetaskforceparticipatedinthediscussion.澳门新辉煌下载平台美克斯(MKS) 眼部按摩仪器美眼美容仪器 智能感应开关设计 NV8518 ,heEssenceoftheProblemstoBeAddressedduringtheEleventhFive-YearPlanPeriodThefirsttwoyearsintheEleventhFive-Year%in2006andbyabout3%,thereisastillmuchworktobedonebeforerealizingthegoaloftheEleventsthereasonbehindsuchahugehabitualincreaseinenergyconsumptionperunitGDPWhatnewcircumstancesandproblemsarethererelatedto,,%%peryearinEleventhFive-YearPlanperiodseemsjustslightlyhigherthantheannuallyaveragedecreaseinthepastthreeFive-YearPlanperiods,butactuallyweareconfrontedwithmuchbiggerdifficultiesatpresent,andthenewcir,structuralelementsincludenotonlyindustrialstructures,butalsothe,60%to70%,thingschangedsince2002:structuralelementsturnedtobethedrivingforceforincreasingenergyconsumptionperunitofGDP,ratherthanforenergysaving,,thepositivecontributionoftechnologicalprogresshasbeengreatlyoffsetbythenegativeinfluencefromstructuralelements,,itisimperativetobuildupanewinnermechanismofenergysaving,,incorporatingbothstructuralandtechnicalelements,andincludingbothproductionlinks(energy-intensiveindustriesinparticular),therearesystematicdefectsinenergy-savingadministration,policies,,distinctdefectsexistinthescope,approachanddegreeofgovernmentsinterventioninenergysaving,particularlyrepresentedbyinsufficiencyofpolicyincentives,suchasinadequateincentivemeasuresforenergysavingrelatedtotaxationandpricing,absenceorinapplicabilityoflaws,rulesandstandardsinnewcircumstances,disorderinenergyadministrationsystemlikeenergy-savingmechanism,notableweakeninginenergyadministrationcapabilities,andtheimma,thestructuralelementscausedcontinuousdropofener,theharmbecomesmoreandmorevisibl,tstagefeaturingtheaccelerateddevelopmentofheavyandchemicalindustry,,thepresenteconomicgrowthrategreatlyexceedstheexpectedrateonwhichenergy-savinggoalwasset,,theaveragerateofeco%,andbasedonthatrate,theamountofenergytobesaved(absolutevalue)%.%%,theenergy-savinggoalswillberespectively670millionand700milliontonsofstandardcoalequivalent(mtsce).Therefore,asthepresentgrowthrateismuchhigherthanexpected,enthFive-stmentandtransformationofeconomicgrowthmode,andcurrentenergy-intensiveindustriesshouldbereplacedby,highgrowthrateandlowenergyconsumptioncanhardlybeachievedsimultaneouslya,neithercannewindustriesdrivingeconomicgrowthemergeinashorttime,norcangrowthmodebetransformedovernight,btainedatthesametime,itisnecessarytomakeclearthattoenhances,eenergysavingworkwasconfrontedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",namely,thecentralgovernmentpaidmoreattentiontothisissuewhereaslocalgovernmentpaidlessattention;moreattentionwasgivenduringenergyshortageorcrisisperiodswhereaslessattentionwasgivenwhenenergywascomparativelysufficient;moreattentionwaspaidinareaswithhighenergyrestric,theenergysavingworkisalsofacedwithproblemsof"threemoreandthreeless",referringtomoremobilizationmeasuresmadebythegovernmentwhereaslessactionstakenbyenterprisesandconsumers;morerequirementsmadewhereaslessconcretemeasures;moreadm,we,legalandadministrativemeasuresaredifferentbynature,ctstheyworkon(Table1):Table1EffectivenessofDifferentMeasuresonDifferentSubjectsLongGuoqiangCurrently,Chinaisun,theindu,toaccuratelyseizethenewopportunitiesarisingfromglobalizationandtopushforwardtheupgradingofindustrialstructurewhileChinaseconomyisIndustrialUpgradingOverthepasttwodecades,theaccumulatedforeigndirectinvestment(FDI)toChinahasexceededUS$,alargeamountofexport-orien,Chinahasbecometheworld,Chinaneedstocontinuetodev,itisalsoimperativetotransformthecountry,theCPCcentralcommitteehasputforwardtheconceptofscientificdevelopment,alongwiththegoalofcomprehensive,,thetransformationmustbeproceededwithaviewtoelevatingChina,ries(1)Thereisastron,whichhasledtoasurgeinurbaninfrastructureconstructionandhasinturnboostedastrongdemandfortheheavyandchemicalindustriessuchasironsteel,cement,sconsumptionstructurepromptedbytheriseinpercapitaincome,whichhaspushedupthedemandforautomobileandhousestoanewlevel,wh,,petrochemicals,machineryandchemicals,therehavebeenmoreandmorecasesofmergersandacquisitions(MAs),theChinesegovernmenthas,forthefirsttimeinhistory,promulgatedrelevantregulationsinordertocreateabettersystematicenvironmentfortransnationalMAs.(2)Massiveexport-orienteda,foreigninvestorshavemassively,ahugeassemblycapacityhasbeenformed,whic,moreandmoreupstreamsparepartshavebeenproducedinChina,leadingtotheform,this"importsubstitute"iscompletedundertheconditionsofopeningtotheoutsideworld,whichwillresultinacontinuo(1)RDinternationalizationandits"spillovereffect".RDinternationalic:(UNCTAD)conductedasur,eachtransnationalcorporationspentanaverage28%Dinstitutionsin1985,,atotalof375foreignc~1990period,thenumberoftheovers%,%.ThethirdmanifestationofRDglobalizationisagro1995bytheworldslargesttransnationalcorporations,%,theNetherlands,Belgium,SwitzerlandandotherEuropeancountries,over50%ofthepatentapplicatiiesadoptedbytransnationalcorporationstoc,theadvanceininformationtechnologyandthemodulizationofRDactivitieshavemadeitpo,conductingoversea,astheseactivitiesareclosertothemarketsofthehostcountries,transnationalcorporationscanincreasetherelevanceoftheircorpo,theycantakeadvantageofthelow-costRDresourcesandespeciallythehumanr,theyaremoreconsistentwiththepoliciesofthehostcountriesa,at,theappealoftheChinesemarketwillbeincreasinglystrongerandmoretransnati,theRDinstitutionsoftransnationalcorporationscanproducea"spillovereffect"onthehostcountries,mainlythroughthemechanismsofdemonstration,themovementofemployeesandinformation,cooperation,gy,effectsisamajortopicfordevelopingcountriesinenhancingtheirinnovationcapacity.(2)Globalizationhasprovidednumerousop,theycanestablishRDins,theycanacquireoverseasRDinstitutionsortechnology,,theycantakeadvantageofoverseasventureinvestmentfundsandc(1)T,theserviceindus%~2003period,theserviceindustryattractedUS$461billionofforeigninvestment,accountingfor66%productionservicesectors,includingbusinessservice(29%),financialservice(25%),transport/warehousing/communications(16%),andtrade(11%).Inaddition,transnationalcorporationshavebegunestablishicountrieswillgreatlyraisetheoverallleveloftheserviceindustryindevelopingcountriesthroughthemechanismsofdemonstration,competitionandmovementofhumanresources....Ifyouneedthefullcontext,:WorldInvestmentReport2001:PromotingLinkages,ChinaFinancialPublishingHouse,2002,:WorldInvestmentReport2005, 

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